Turkey Libya Agreement Un
Turkey and the government of the national agreement have signed a maritime border treaty to create an exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean, meaning they can claim rights to basic marine resources.  According to the list of maritime border treaties, this is the first agreement ever signed between the two countries and thus introduces a new dynamic in the eastern Mediterranean region. However, there are concerns that the agreement could fuel an “energy showdown” in the region because it is highly controversial.  The agreement on the delimitation of maritime transport also recognises Turkey`s rights in its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) which extends to the south-east of the island of Crete and thwarts all illegal attempts to contain the country`s EEZ in the Mediterranean. The agreement “was registered with the Secretariat in accordance with Article 102 of the United Nations Charter,” the registration deed said on Wednesday. The legitimacy and legal consequences of the agreement have been challenged by a number of states in the region as well as by the European Union. According to the European Union, the agreement “violates the sovereign rights of third countries, is not in accordance with the law of the sea and cannot have legal consequences for third countries.”  Cyprus and Egypt both considered the agreement “illegal”, while Greece considers it “unconfessed” and “geographically absurd” because it ignores the presence of the islands of Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Kastellorizo and Rhodes between the Turkish and Libyan coasts.  In October 2020, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres registered an agreement between Turkey and Libya on the delimitation of maritime areas in the Mediterranean. The agreement “was registered with the Secretariat in accordance with Article 102 of the United Nations Charter,” the registration certificate states.  Two months earlier (August 2020), Greece and Egypt had signed another maritime agreement delimiting an exclusive economic zone for oil and gas drilling rights to counter the Agreement between Turkey and Libya.  Turkey and the GNA also signed an agreement last year on security cooperation and military cooperation.
Earlier this year, Turkey sent troops, Syrian mercenaries and other military backers to help the GNA fend off an attack by Libya`s rival eastern-based National Army and fend off the deluge of the conflict. Turkey is a member of the UN and the Libyan GNA is recognized by the international organization. Therefore, there are criticisms such as: “If there was a relationship with the regime of [Khalifa] Haftar, if Turkey signed an agreement with Haftar, it would be better” not to have a legal basis, since the GNA is a transitional government in Libya, created under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a UN-led initiative signed on 17 December 2015.
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