Translation Of Trade Agreement
Trade pacts are often politically controversial because they can change economic practices and deepen interdependence with trading partners. Improving efficiency through “free trade” is a common goal. Most governments support other trade agreements. The logic of formal trade agreements is that they reduce penalties for deviation from the rules set out in the agreement.  As a result, trade agreements make misunderstandings less likely and create confidence on both sides in the sanction of fraud; this increases the likelihood of long-term cooperation.  An international organization such as the IMF can further encourage cooperation by monitoring compliance with agreements and reporting violations.  It may be necessary to monitor international agencies to detect non-tariff barriers that are disguised attempts to create barriers to trade.  Britannica.com: Encyclopedia articles on trade agreements All agreements concluded outside the WTO framework (which provide additional benefits outside the WTO MFN level, but apply only between signatories and not other WTO members) are considered to be preferred by the WTO. Under WTO rules, these agreements are subject to certain requirements, such as WTO notification and general reciprocity (preferences should apply equally to each signatory to the agreement), where unilateral preferences (some of the signatories enjoy preferential market access to the other signatories without reducing their tariffs) are allowed only in exceptional circumstances and as a temporary measure.  Trade agreements designated by the WTO as preferential agreements are also referred to as regional agreements (RTRs), although they are not necessarily concluded by countries located in a given region. Currently, 205 agreements are in effect as of July 2007. More than 300 people have been notified to the WTO.  The number of free trade agreements has increased significantly over the past decade.
Between 1948 and 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), predecessor to the WTO, received 124 notifications. Since 1995, more than 300 trade agreements have been concluded.  There are a large number of trade agreements; some are quite complex (the European Union), while others are less intense (North American free trade agreement).  The resulting level of economic integration depends on the specific type of trade pacts and policies adopted by the trade bloc: regional trade agreements are very difficult to conclude and claim when countries are more diverse. The WTO continues to classify these agreements as follows: however, there have been some concerns expressed by the WTO. According to Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the WTO, the dissemination of regional trade agreements (RTA) is “… is the concern of inconsistency, confusion, exponentially increasing costs for businesses, unpredictability and even injustice in trade relations.  The WTO is how typical trade agreements (called preferential or regional agreements by the WTO) are to some extent useful, but it is much more advantageous to focus on global agreements under the WTO, such as the ongoing Doha Round negotiations.
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